Top 160 Networking Interview Questions & Answers (2023)

Hardware & Networking Interview Questions with Answers

Top 160 Networking Interview Questions & Answers (2023)

In this article, I am sharing with you the Top 160 Hardware & Networking interview questions which are the most important and frequently asked in every networking interview.

Networking Interview Questions & Answers

Q #1. What is Network?
Ans: – Collection on device connected with each other through some media (wide/ wireless) for data communication purpose is called as Network.

Q #2. What is Networking?
Ans: – Logically enabling the devices to communicate with each other is called Networking.

Q #3. Types of Computer Network?
Ans: –
• LAN (Local Area Network): –
Any network within any office or building is called LAN.

• MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): –
Any network within any city is called as MAN.
Example: – Cable T.V.

• WAN (Wide Area Network): –
Any network within worldwide connected is called as WAN.
Example: – Internet.

• PAN (Personal Area Network): –
Any computer network interconnecting some electronic devices is called PAN.
Example: – A mobile phone is connecting a Laptop via Wi-Fi.

• CAN (Campus Area Network): –
Any network within multiple interconnected LAN in a limited area is called CAN.
Example: – University campus area.

• SAN (Storage Area Network): –
A special high-speed network that stores and provides access to large amount of data.

Q #4. What is different between ‘internet’ and ‘Internet’?
Ans: – ‘internet’ between different two network.
This is example of LAN. But,
Internet is the network of networks.
b) Internet is the world largest network.
c) This is the storage of information which is available to everyone globally.
d) This is example of WAN.

Q #5. What is a Physical Address?
Ans: – This is also called as MAC (Media Access Control) address.
a) This is a permanent address.
b) This is hard-coated on NIC at the time manufacturing.
c) MAC address is 48 bits.
d) MAC consists of 12 Hexadecimal digits.
e) MAC address consists are two parts 24 bits & 24 bits.
f) 24 bits are manufacturer ID given by IEEE and 24 bits are serial no. of given by manufacturer at the time of manufacturing.

Q #6. What is Logical address or IP address?
Ans: – IP (Internet Protocol) is a logically address used to identify any device in a network uniquely and the network itself.
a) IP version is 2 types – IPv4 & IPv6.
b) IPv4 is 32 bits & IPv6 is 128 bits.
c) IANA has manage IPv4 address.
d) ICANN has managed IPv6 address.
e) Every IPv4 address of consists of 4 Octet.
f) Every IPv4 address is denote by 4 decimal number separated by dots.

Q #7. Give a short description of ICANN?
Ans: – Its full from Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.
It is a private corporation and its main role is to keep the Internet stable, secure and interconnected.

 Q #8. Give a short description of IANA?
Ans: – Its full from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
It is a standards organization and its main role Domain Name Service, Numbers Resources and Protocol Assignments.

Q #9. What is ‘APIPA’?
Ans: – Its full form of “Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing”.
It is a feature of operating system (windows), when the DHCP server is not available in the network or the DHCP Scope is over, then the client computer will take IP automatically from network, which is called as APPIPA.
Its range – to

Q #10. What is the difference between IP address & MAC address?
Ans: –

IP addressMAC address
IP is a Logical address.MAC is a Physical address.
It helps to identify the connection of a device on the internet.It helps to uniquely identify the device.
It is assigned by ISP.It is assigned by IEEE.
It can be changed.It cannot be changed.
It is 2 types, Ipv4 – 32 bits & Ipv6 – 128 bits.It is 48 bits.
It works on the Network layer of the OSI model.It works on the Data Link layer of the OSI model.

Q #11. What is the difference between IPv4 & IPv6?
Ans: –

It is a 32 bits address.It is a 128 bits address.
32 bits are divided into 4 equal parts, each part having 8 bits called an Octet.128 bits are divided into 8 groups, each group having 16 bits and is called a Block.
Octets are separated by .(dot).Blocks are separated by :(Colon).
IPv4 is written in decimal format.IPv4 is written in Hexadecimal format.
It uses a subnet mask to determine network and host bits.It uses prefixes to determine network and host bits.
It is divided into 5 different classes.No classification.

Q #12. Classification of IPv4 or range of the IPv4 address?
Ans: –
IANA has divided IPv4 addresses into 5 classes on the basis of the first Octet value.

Range Class Usage
0 to 127 ‘A’It is used for Networking.
128 to 191 ‘B’It is used for Multicasting.
192 to 223‘C’It is used for Multicasting.
224 to 239 D’It is used for Multicasting.
240 to 255‘E’It is used for Research & Development.

Q #13. What is Loopback address?
Ans: –
A loopback address is a type of IP address that is used to check the communication on the local network card and testing for the network application.
Its range to

Q #14. What is a Host?
Ans: –
Any node having an IP address is called a Host.

Q #15. What is a Hostname?
Ans: –
The name of any Node/Device is called Host Name.

Q #16. What is Node?
Ans: –
Any device in a network is called a Node.

Q #17. What is Private IP address?
Ans: –
The IP address which is used to communicate in a private network (Intranet) is called a Private IP address.

Q #18. What is Public IP address?
Ans: –
The IP address which is assigned by an ISP and is used to communicate in a public network (Internet) is called Public IP address.

Q #19. What is the range of the Private IP address?
Ans: –

ClassRangeTotal Host
Class ‘A’ to
Class ‘B’ to
Class ‘C’ to

Q #20. What is the range of Public IP addresses?
Ans: –

Class ‘A’ to to
Class ‘B’ to to
Class ‘C’ to to

Q #21. What is different between a Private IP address & a Public address?
Ans: –

Private IP AddressPublic IP Address
It is assigned by the administrator in LAN.It is assigned by ISP.
It is Non-registered IP.It is a registered IP.
It is no need to purchase.It is needed to purchase for ISP.
It is used in LAN.It is used in WAN.
It is non-routable IP.It is routable IP.

Q #22. What is DHCP?
Ans: –
It is a protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to a device on a network.
• Its stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
• DHCP is an application layer protocol of the OSI model.
• It uses the port of no. 67 (Server) & 68 (Client).
• It is a UDP based service.
• It is providing IP address to the client computer automatically.

Q #23. What is DHCP Server?
Ans: –
DHCP Server is a physical computer that provides an IP address to the client computer automatically.

Q #24. What is DHCP Scope?
Ans: –
DHCP Scope is the range of valid host address from where DHCP provide the IP address to the client computer.

Q #25. What is different between Domain and Workgroup?
Ans: –

The server is responsible for data safety.Every PC is responsible for its own security.
Centralize administration.No centralize administration.
The main aim is to Secure data.The main aim is to salve hardware resources.
Best suite in company environments.Best suite in school, institute, cyber cafe.
There can be more than 100 pc in the domain.Typically, not more than 20-30 pc in the workgroup.

Q #26. What is Firewall?
Ans: –
Firewall is a security system, which protects the computer or the whole network from unauthorized access.

Q #27. What is DNS?
Ans: –
DNS is one type of phonebook of the internet.

• Its stands for Domain Name System.
• DNS is an application layer protocol of the OSI layer model and uses port no. 53.
• It is used for both TCP/ UDP services.
• It’s provided a name resolution service.
• It’s resolved hostname to IP address and IP address to FQDN.

Q #28. What is DNS Server?
Ans: –
DNS server is a physical computer that provides name resolution service.
It resolved hostname to the IP address and the IP address to FQDN.

Q #29. What is FQDN?
Ans: –
An FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) contains both the hostname and a domain name. It is uniquely identifying a host within the DNS hierarchy.
Example –

Q #30. What is Subnet Mask?
Ans: –
Subnet Mask is a 32-bit number used by the system to identify how many bits are in a network and how many bits are in the host for giving IP address.
In the world, there are 3 default Subnet Masks –
• Class “A” – Network. Host. Host. Host
• Class “B” – Network. Network. Host. Host
• Class “C” – Network. Network. Network. Host

Q #31. What is Subnetting?
Ans: –
The process of dividing a large network into smaller numbers of networking is called Subnetting.
Every small network is called a Subnet.

Q #32. What is the type of Subnetting?
Ans: –
There are 2 types of Subnetting –
1) FLSM (Fixed Length Subnet Mask)
2) VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask)

Q #33. What is FLSM?
Ans: –
The process of subnetting through which we get subnets of all equal lengths is called as FLSM.

Q #34. What is VLSM?
Ans: –
The process of subnetting through which we can get the required no. of hosts per subnet is called as VLSM.

Q #35. What is meant by “Destination Host Unreachable”?
Ans: – This message indicates either the local system has no route to the desired destination or a remote router reports that it has no route to the destination.

Q #36. What is mean by “Request Timed Out”?
Ans: –
This message indicates that the server did not receive a complete request from the client computer within a specific period of time tracked by the server.

Q #37. What is “PING”?
Ans: –
The PING (Packet Internet Groper) command is the simplest tool and its used to test connectivity. It sends ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) echo packets to a host and listens for an echo reply in order to verify the connection status.

Q #38. What is the use of the “Traceroute” command?
Ans: –
Traceroute command can show you the path of the packet from your computer to the Destination. It will list all the routers it passes through until it reaches its destination.

Q #39. What is the difference between Ipconfig and Ifconfig commands?
Ans: –
Ipconfig stands for Internet Protocol Configuration and this command is used on Microsoft Windows to view and configure the network interface. The command Ipconfig is useful for displaying all TCP/IP network summary information currently available on a network.
Ifconfig (Interface Configuration) is a command that is used on Linux, Mac, and UNIX operating systems. It is used to configure and control the TCP/IP network interface parameters from CLI (Command Line Interface). It allows you to see the IP addresses of these network interfaces.

Q #40. What is NAT?
Ans: –

• NAT stands for ‘Network Address Translation’.
• NAT translates the IP addresses of computers in a local network to a single IP address.
• NAT is also one of the IP services. This service is used to translate a Private IP address to a Public IP address.

Q #41. What is VPN?
Ans: –

• VPN stands for ‘Virtual Private Network’.
• VPN helps to establish a secure dial-up connection to a remote server.
• This is a connection method for adding security and privacy to public and private networks, such as wi-fi hotspots and the internet.

Q #42. What is a Frame relay and in which layer does it operate?
Ans: –
A Frame relay is a packet-switching technology.
It operates in the Data Link layer of the ISO/OSI model.

Q #43. What is Beaconing?
Ans: –
The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problem. It is used in Token rings and FDDI networks.

Q #44. What is different between Firewall & Antivirus?
Ans: –
A Firewall prevents any unauthorized access to private networks such as intranets.
However, it does not protect against viruses, spyware, or adware.
As Antivirus is software that protects a computer from any malicious software, virus, spyware, and adware.

Q #45. What is ‘IEEE’?
Ans: –
IEEE stands for “Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers”.
It is the world’s largest technical professional society and is dedicated to advancing innovation and technological excellence.

Q #46. Compare Analog and Digital signal?
Ans: –
Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range but Digital signals can have only a limited number of values.

Q #47. What is ICMP?
Ans: –
ICMP stands for Internet Control Message Protocol.
It is a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notifications of datagram problems back to the sender.

Q #48. What is SCSI?
Ans: –
SCSI stands for Small Computer System Interface.
It is a set of American National Standards Institute (ANSI), that allow personal computers (PCs) to communicate with peripheral hardware such as disk drives, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, printers and scanners faster and more flexibly than previous parallel data transfer interfaces.

Q #49. What is Multimeter?
Ans: –
A Multimeter is an electronic instrument used to measure voltage, current and resistance.

Q #50. What is attenuation in the network?
Ans: –
When the signal travel through media its loss some of its energy due to the resistance of the media, this loss of energy is called as Attenuation.

Q #51. What is Map drive in windows?
Ans: –
Mapping a drive means that you want permanent access to a folder that is currently residing on another computer server or network storage device.

Q #52. What is Proxy Server?
Ans: –
A proxy server is a bridge between you and the rest of the internet. Normally, when you use your browser to surf the internet, you’ll connect directly to the website you’re visiting. Proxies communicate with websites on your behalf.

Q #53. What is Net-Bios?
Ans: –

• Net-Bios stands for Network Basic Input/ Output System.
• It works on the Session Layer of the ISO/OSI model.
• It converted the IP address to the Hostname (Computer Name) on LAN share mode.

Q #54. What are the differences between Internet & Intranet?
Ans: –

The Internet is a Public network.An intranet is a Private network.
Internet is anyone can access information.Intranet only the users of the organization have access.
The Internet is a global system and it has a large number of users.An intranet is a small network and has a limited number of users.
Example – WAN.Example – LAN, MAN.

Q #55. What is Cache Memory?
Ans: –

• Cache Memory is very high-speed memory.
• Cache memory is the memory between RAM and Processor.
• It has stored the resources which are frequently used by the processor.
• If cache memory increases the speed of the system will also improve.

Q #56. What is Operating System and what is the type of OS?
Ans: –
OS is the common system software program that runs on a computer.
An OS acts as an interface between the user and the PC.
They are 2 types –
1) NOS (Network Operating System)
2) COS (Client Operating System)

Q #57. What is different between ARP & RARP?
Ans: –
Address Resolution Protocol resolved IP address to a known hardware address (MAC address) and,
a MAC address to a known IP address is Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP).

Q #58. What is FTP?
Ans: –

• FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol.
• It is an Application layer protocol of the ISO/OSI model.
• It uses port no. 20 for Data & 21 for Control.
• It is used for Uploading and Downloading the file.
• It is responsible for process-to-process delivery.

Q #59. What is Telnet?
Ans: –

• It is an Application layer protocol of the ISO/OSI model.
• It uses port no. 23.
• It is a TCP-based service.
• It is a command-line interface used for remote login.
• It is a secure service because it needs administrative login and password.

Q #60. What is SSH?
Ans: –

• SSH stands for Secure Shell.
• It uses a cryptographic algorithm to encrypt the session.
• It is used TCP, port no. 22.
• It is more secure than Telnet.

Q #61. Details of most important protocol, services, port no. & their function?
Ans: –

Port No.Function
FTP TCP20 (Data)
21 (Control)
(File Transfer Protocol)
File Upload / Download service.
SSHTCP22(Secure Shell)
It provides remote login and secure file access.
TelnetTCP23You can configure remote device such as Routers, Switches.
SMTPTCP25(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
For sending mail.
DNSTCP/ UDP53(Domain Naming Service)
Name resolution service
DHCPUDP 67 (Server)
68 (Client)
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
It helps automatically assign an IP address to a computer.
TFTPUDP69(Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
File Upload/ Download service.
HTTPTCP80(Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
For Web service.
POP3TCP110(Post Office Protocol version 3)
For receiving mail.
NNTPTCP119(Network News Transmission Protocol)
For News group service.
IMAPTCP143(Internet Mailing Application Protocol)
For receiving mail.
SNMPUDP161(Secure Network Management Protocol)
For network management.
HTTPSTCP443(Secure Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
Web service in a secure way.

Q #62. What is Bootloader?
Ans: –
A Bootloader is a program that runs on a device before the computer starts this program contains information that tells a device how startup and find the system kernel.

Q #63. What is SMTP and POP server?
Ans: –
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is used for sending and delivering from a client via port no. 25 with SSL 465 and TLS 587.
POP (Post Office Protocol) allows the user to pick up the message and download it into his own inbox. It is the incoming server. It’s Used TCP/IP port no. 110 with SSL 995.

Q #64. What is difference between HTTP & HTTPS?
Ans: –

(Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
(Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure)
HTTP is an unsecured protocol.HTTPS is a secure protocol.
It uses port no. 80.It uses port no 443.
Here no data encryption.Here data is encrypted.
No SSL certificates are required for HTTP.HTTPS is required SSL certificate.

Q #65. What is the difference between POP3 & IMAP?
Ans: –

(Post Office Protocol version 3)
(Internet Message Access Protocol)
It’s port no. 110 & SSL port no. 995.It’s port no. 143 & SSL port no. 993.
It is a simple protocol that only allows downloading messages from your Inbox to your local computer.IMAP is much more advanced and allows you the user to see all the folders on the mail server.
In POP3 the mail can only be accessed from a single device at a time.Messages can be accessed across multiple devices at a time.
After downloading, the message exists in the local system if the local system crashes message is lost.Multiple copies are stored in the mail server, in case of loss of message of a local server, the mail can still be retrieved.

Server Hardware Interview Questions

Q #66. What is Storage Device?
Ans: –
A Storage Device is any computer hardware that is used for storing data and extracting data.
There are two types of storage devices used with computers a primary storage device as RAM and a secondary storage device such as a hard disk.

Q #67. What is the difference between FSB and BSB?
Ans: –

FSB (Front Side Bus)BSB (Back Side Bus)
FSB interface between the L2 cache on the processor to the north bridge of the motherboard.BSB interface between L1 cache on the processor with L2 cache memory.
FSB is slower than BSB.BSB is faster than FSB.

Q #68. What are the differences between Multitasking and Multiprocessing?
Ans: – The ability to execute more than one task at the same time, a task being a program is called Multitasking.
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more CPUs (Central Processing Unit) within a single computer system.

Q #69. What is Hyperthreading?
Ans: –
Hyperthreading is a technology developed by the Intel Corporation.
Hyperthreading allows two or more streams to be executed in parallel, it is almost like two logical processors into a physical processor.

Q #70. What are the causes of Overheating of the Processor?
Ans: –

• Processor fun may not be properly connected.
• Heat sink may not be connected to the processor.
• Jumper may be configured to overclock to CPU.
• Voltage supply is incompatible.

Q #71. What is the main cause of the No display of a computer?
Ans: –

• Monitor is not on.
• Computer is a sleep mode.
• Lose the display cable (VGA, HDMI).
• Undo any recent changes.
• NO post.
• The binary Operating System may be corrupted.
• Motherboard problem.
• Bad RAM.
• Video card is not working.

Q #72. What is a Heat sink?
Ans: –
A Heat sink is a thermal metal device with a motor fun it designed to absorb and disperse heat from the processor.

Q #73. Different between Serial Port and Parallel Port?
Ans: –

Serial PortParallel Port
Serial Port is used to achieve serial transmission.The parallel port is used to achieve parallel transmission.
A serial port is able to transmit a single stream of data at a time.A parallel port is able to transmit multiple data streams at a time.
Its transmission speed is Low.Its transmission speed is higher than the serial.
It is used COM port or a male port.It is used LPT port or female port.
It has 9 pins/ 25 pins.It has 25 pins.

Q #74. What is Nehalem Architecture?
Ans: –
Nehalem is the codename for an Intel processor or microarchitecture was released in November 2008.
Nehalem was used in the first generation of the Intel Core processor (i3, i5, i7).

Q #75. What is BSOD? What are the possible causes of a blue screen error?
Ans: –
Blue Screen of Death (BSOD) is a Microsoft Windows Operating System error screen that is displayed to indicate system conflicts and the potential for a crash.
• Problem in RAM.
• Problem in the motherboard.
• Less memory of laptop/ desktop pc.
• Virus or malware problem.
• Hard disk drive faults.
• Problem BIOS setting.

Q #76. What is the problem that a printer faces for not printing?
Ans: –

• The power is off.
• The machine is set to offline.
• The interface cable is not connected correctly.
• Diverse is not correct.

Q #77. What is the difference between a disk and a drive?
Ans: –
Disk is a floppy disk – removable magnetic medium or a hard disk – fixed, persistent digital storage while Drive is a mass storage device in which the mechanism for reading and writing data is integrated with the mechanism for storing data as a hard drive, a flash drive.

Q #78. Different between AGP & PCI?
Ans: –

(Accelerated Graphics Port)
(Peripheral Component Interconnect)
AGP cards can access the system memory to help with a complex operations such as texture mapping.PCI cards can only access the memory available on the actual card.
AGP doesn’t share bandwidth with another device.PCI cards share bandwidth with another device.
AGP is send pipelined requests, which means it can execute multiple instructions at one time.PCI cards are not pipelined, which means each instruction has to finish before the next one is run.

Q #79. Different between S-Ram & D-Ram?
Ans: –

S-RAM consists of internal flip-flops.D-RAM consists of transistors & capacitors.
Information is stored in the form of Bits.Information is stored in the form of Charge.
It is Faster.It is Slower.
More power consumption.Less power consumption.
Used in Cache memory.Used in main memory.

Q #80. What is BIOS?
Ans: –

• It means Basic Input Output System.
• It is Firmware.
• It acts as an intermediary between computer hardware and its Operating System.

Q #81. What is the difference between File & Folder?
Ans: –
The basic difference between the two is that File stores data, while Folders stores files and other folders.
The folders often referred to as directories, are used to organize files on your computer. The folder themselves take up virtually no space on the hard drive.

Q #82. My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it?
Ans: –

• Remove the unnecessary software from the program and features.
• Remove temp file with the help of “temp” & “%temp%” in cmd.
• Disk clean up with the help of “Cleanmgr”.
• Remove startup program.
• Clean pc with help of antivirus.
• Remove background program from task manager.
• Upgrade OS and all necessary drivers.
• Upgrade RAM and hard drive.
• Processor overheating.

Q #83. Why is my website not working?
Ans: –

• Check my IP, Subnet mask, Gateway.
• Check firewall settings.
• Restore web browser setting.
• Sometimes its problem occurs because of antivirus.
• Check your data and time, Enable javascript.
• Ipconfig/ flushdns command use.
• Use VPN server and proxy server.
• Clear cache, cookies, website & certificates errors.

Q #84. What is different between TeamViewer and Remote Desktop?
Ans: –

TeamViewerRemote Desktop
Team Viewer allows the remote user to see everything you to on their screen, which is important for providing remote support to your customer.Remote desktop Protocol (RDP) does not allow the user of the remote computer to see or control their screen when you connect to them, meaning the remote user doesn’t know what you are doing on their computer.
Team Viewer works without port forwarding or another firewall configuration.RDP requires you to configure port forwarding on the remote computer’s firewall or router.

Q #85. What is difference between MBR & GPT?
Ans: –

MBR (Master Boot Record)GPT (Guid Partition Table)
MBR used legacy OS standard BIOS partition table.GPT creates multiple partitions & 128 primary partitions.
MBR supports up to 2 TB Hard Disk.GPT also supports more than 2 TB Hard Disk.
In MBR disk the boot data is store in one place, so sometimes data is corrupted, it is difficult to recover.GPT is more secure because of primary GPT store data at beginning and secondary GPT store data at ending.

Q #86. What is Remote Desktop & Remote Assistance?
Ans: –
Remote desktop connection (RDC) and remote assistance are the features that allow a local computer to connect and control a remote pc over a network or Internet. By using RDC one can support and resolve the issues remotely. The main difference between them is user can’t view his desktop once the remote session starts and in remote assistance user can view the screen at the same time.

Q #87. What is Encapsulation?
Ans: –
Data flow upper layer to a lower layer (ISO/OSI model) result in the convention of data to a lower format with the addition of the lower header, this process is called Encapsulation.

Q #88. What is Decapsulation?
Ans: –
Data flows from a lower layer to an upper layer (ISO/OSI model) data is converted to the upper layer data format and the lower layer header is discarded this process is called as Decapsulation.

Q #89. What is ISO/OSI Model?
Ans: –
OSI model system defines and use to understand how data is transferred from one system to another system.
It is developed by ISO (International Standard Organization).
It’s full from the International organization of Standardization/ Open System Interconnection.
It has 7 layers –
1) Physical Layer.
2) Data Link Layer.
3) Network Layer.
4) Transport Layer.
5) Session Layer.
6) Presentation Layer.
7) Application Layer.

Q #90. What is TCP/ IP model?
Ans: –
Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol are two separate computer network protocols that define a set of rules to govern connection among all devices connected to the internet.
It is developed by DoD (Department of Defense).
There are 4 layers –
1) Application Layer.
2) Transport Layer.
3) Internet Layer.
4) Network Interface Layer.

Q #91. What is MTU?
Ans: –
The biggest bundle that can be sent through an information connection layer is called as the Maximum Transmission Unit.

Q #92. What is Flow Control?
Ans: –
TCP has a mechanism of managing and tracking the amount of data transferred, this process is called as Flow Control.

Q #93. What is Encryption & Decryption?
Ans: –
Encryption is the process of changing data from its original readable format to an unreadable format.
Decryption is the process of changing data from its unreadable format to an original readable format.

Q #94. What is the difference between OSI & TCP/IP reference model?
Ans: –

OSI modelTCP/ IP model
Its stands for Open System Interconnection.Its stands for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol.
OSI has 7 layers.TCP/IP has 4 layers.
OSI has less reliable.TCP/IP has more reliable.
OSI model developed by ISO.TCP/IP model developed by DoD.
OSI model follows a vertical approach.TCP/IP model follows a horizontal approach.

Q #95. Different between TCP & UDP?
Ans: –

(Transmission Control Protocol)
(User Datagram Protocol)
It provides Acknowledgement.It never provides Acknowledgement.
It is a Reliable protocol.It is an Unreliable protocol.
It guarantees the delivery of packets.It’s never guarantees of delivery of the packet.
It is Slow.It is very Fast.
It’s port no. – 6.It’s port no. – 17.

Q #96. What is Network Topology? What are the type of Network Topology?
Ans: –
Network topology is a physical layout of the computer network and it defines how the computers, devices, cables are connected to each other.
They are 2 types of Topology-
Physical Topology: – The way devices are connected with each other in a network is called Physical Topology.
Logical topology: – The way devices are communicated with each other in a network is called as Logical Topology.

Q #97. What is the different type of Network Topologies?
Ans: –
There are 6 different type of topologies –
1) Bus Topology.
2) Ring Topology.
3) Star Topology.
4) Mesh Topology.
5) Tree Topology.
6) Hybrid Topology.

Q #98. What is Broadcast Domain?
Ans: –
A Broadcast Domain is a logical division of a computer network, in which all nodes can reach each other by broadcast at the data link layer.

Q #99. What is Collision Domain?
Ans: –
A Collision Domain is a part of the network where packet collision can occur. A collision occurs when two devices send a packet at the same time on the shared network segment.

Q #100. How many collision domains and broadcast domains are there in the switch?
Ans: –
As many ports there is a switch that many collision domains are there.
For example – a switch with 24 ports has 24 collision domains.
Only one broadcast domain is there in any switch.

Q #101. What is CSMA/ CD?
Ans: –
Its stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. CSMA/ CD is a MAC (Media Access Control) protocol. It defines how network devices respond when two devices attempt to use a data channel at the same time.

Q #102. What is CSMA/ CA?
Ans: –
Its stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. It is a network contention protocol used for carrier transmission in networks using the 802.11 standards. In contrast to the CSMA/CD protocol, which handles transmissions only after a collision has taken place, CSMA/CA works to avoid collisions prior to their occurrence.

Q #103. What is Hub? Give some characteristics?
Ans: –
Hub is a Physical layer device of ISO/OSI model used to connect to LAN network.
• It has maximum 24 ports.
• Its efficiency 40-60 %.
• It’s a Physical layer device.
• It is a half-duplex device.
• Its store MAC address.
• It transmits Bits or Signal.
• It is a single broadcast domain & single collision domain.
• It is two type – Active Hub & Passive Hub.

Q #104. What is Repeater? Give some characteristics?
Ans: –
Repeater is an electronic device which used to regenerate or replicate a signal.
• It is Physical layer device of ISO/OSI model.
• It transmits Bits or Signal.
• It is an amplifier/regenerates the signal.
• It is two types – Analog & Digital.

Q #105. What is Bridge? Give some characteristics?
Ans: –
Bridge is a Data Link layer device used to connect multiple LAN segments.
• It is a Data Link device of ISO/OSI model.
• It is used to connect multiple LAN segments or LAN.
• It has 2 collision domains.

Q #106. What is Switch? Give some characteristics?
Ans: –
Switch is an intelligent device and connects to multiple LAN segments.
• It is an intelligent device.
• It works on the Data Link layer of ISO/OSI model.
• It is efficiency 100 %.
• It is a maximum of 48 ports.
• It is a full-duplex device.
• It is the first broadcast and then multicast or unicast.
• It is a single broadcast & multiple collision domain.
• It transmits Frames.
• It is maintained MAC table.

Q #107. What is Router? Give some characteristics?
Ans: –
Router is used to connect two or more different networks and different geographical locations.
• It is a Network layer device of ISO/OSI model.
• It is an inter-networking device.
• It is used IP address.
• It is a maintained Routing table.
• It transmits Packets.

Q #108. What is Brouter?
Ans: –
Brouter or Bridge Router is a device that acts as both a bridge and a router. As a bridge, it forwards data between the networks, and as a router, it routes the data to specified systems within a network.

Q #109. What is the main difference between Bridge & Switch?
Ans: –
Bridges can create collision domains but cannot create broadcast domains.
But, in Switch in every node will be a separate collision domain.

Q #110. What is Modem? Give some characteristics?
Ans: –
Modem stands for Modulator-Demodulator.
• It is a device which helps to transmit the data over Telephone or Cable Line.
• A modem converts between these two forms (analog to digital and vice versa).
• It is two types – Internal & External Modem.
• Famous company – Netgear, TP-Link, Motorola.

Q #111. What is the difference between Hub and Switch?
Ans: –

Hub is a Physical layer device of the OSI model.The switch is a Data Link layer device of the OSI model.
Hub transfer data in Half duplex mode.Switch transfer the data in Full-duplex mode.
Hub cannot learn MAC address.Switch stores MAC address.
Hub transfers the data in Signal or Bits.Switch transfer the data in Frame (L2 Switch) & Packet (L3 Switch).
Hub is a Broadcast device.The switch is a Unicast device.
Hub creates a single collision Domain & a single broadcast domain.The switch creates multiple collision domains and a single broadcast domain.

Q #112. What is CSU/ DSU?
Ans: –
The Channel Service Unit/ Data Service Unit is a digital interface to connect end-point equipment.
Example – Modems, Network Interface Card.

Q #113. What is different between Switch & Router?
Ans: –

It is a LAN device.It is a WAN device.
It is a Networking device.It is an Inter-networking device.
It works on the Data Link layer.It works on the network layer.
The switch has one broadcast domain.In a router, every port has its own broadcast domain.
It is uses the MAC address.It uses IP address.
It transmits Frame.It transmits Packet.
It is maintaining CAM table (Content Accessible memory).It is maintaining the Routing table.
Its manufacturers are Cisco, D-Link, Juniper.Its manufacturers are Cisco, Netgear, Asus, D-Link, TP-Link.

Q #114. What is different between Router & Layer -3 Switch?
Ans: –

RouterLayer – 3 switch
It is used for WAN.It is used in LAN.
It is Software based forwarding decision.It is Hardware based forwarding decision.
It provides MPLs and VPN services.It does not provide MPLs and VPN services.
It supports Edge technology. Ex- NAT, Firewall.It does not support Edge technology.
Its cost is high.Its cost is Low.
Its port density is Low.Its port density is high.
It is slow.It is Faster than Router.

Q #115. What is the difference between Manageable Switch and Non-manageable Switch?
Ans: –

Manageable SwitchNon-manageable Switch
It can be configured.Its cant is configured.
Here console port is present.Here console port is not present.
It is expensive.It is less expensive.

Q #116. What is the difference between Layer-2 switch & Layer-3 switch?
Ans: –

L-2 SwitchL-3 Switch
It works on the data link layer of ISO/OSI model.It works on both the network & data link layer of ISO/OSI model.
It does switching only.It does both switching & routing.
It is used the MAC address.It is used IP & MAC addresses.

Q #117. What is Gateway?
Ans: –
A Gateway is a network node that connects two networks in a different protocol.
Example – A router can act as a gateway to reach another network.

Q #118. What is a straight-through cable?
Ans: –
The straight-through cable is used to connect different types of devices.
Example –
1) Switch to Pc
2) Switch to router
3) Pc to I/O box.
4) I/O to Patch panel
5) Patch panel to Switch

Q #119. What is Crossover Cable?
Ans: –
The Crossover cable is used to connect the same type of devices.
Example –
1) Pc to Pc
2) Switch to Switch
3) Hub to Hub
4) Router to router
5) Pc to Router

Q #120. Why do we use a Cross cable to connect pc to the router?
Ans: –
Cross cable is used to connecting a router to a pc because both devices have the same type of components.

Q #121. What is the color code of EIA/TIA T-568A & 568B?
Ans: –

White/ GreenWhite/ Orange
White/ OrangeWhite/ Green
White/ BlueWhite/ Blue
White/ BrownWhite/ Brown

Q #125. What is mean by Thicknet or 10 base 5 or RG-8?
Ans: –

Bandwidth10 mbps
Segment Length 500 meters
No. of nodes connected 100
Connecter AUI (15 pins)

Q #126. What is mean by Thinnet or 10 base 2 or RG – 58?
Ans: –

Bandwidth10 mbps
Signaling Baseband
Segment Length 200 meters (actual 185 m)
No. of nodes connected 30

Q #127. What is Segment Length?
Ans: –
The maximum length of a cable that can carry the signal with full strength without any amplifying the devices is called as Segment Length.

Q #128. What is the difference between UTP and STP cables?
Ans: –

Full from Unshielded Twisted Pair cable.Full from Shielded Twisted Pair cable.
In UTP grounding cable is not necessary.In STP grounding cable is required.
The data rate in UTP is slow compared to STP.The data rate in STP is high.
The cost of UTP is less.While STP is more costly than UTP.
UTP is unshielded.STP is a shield.

Q #129. What is mean by IEEE 802.3?
Ans: –
It is IEEE standardized Ethernet cable with and data rate of 10 Mbps.

Q #130. What is mean by IEEE 802.3u?
Ans: –
It is IEEE standardized Fast Ethernet cable and data rate 100 Mbps.

Q #131. What is mean by IEEE 802.3z?
Ans: –
It is IEEE standardized Gigabit Ethernet cable with and data rate of 1000 Mbps.

Q #132. What is mean by IEEE 802.3ae?
Ans: –
It is IEEE standardized 10-gigabit ethernet cable and data rate speed of 10 Gbps.

Q #133. What is the mean by 10BASE-T?
Ans: –
10Base-T specifies data transfer rate 10Mbps. Here the usage of the term ‘Base’ specifies ‘Baseband’ and ‘T’ denotes the type of cable, which is a twisted pair cable.

Q #134. What is Ram?
Ans: –

It stands for Random Access Memory.
It is a primary memory.
It is an IC.
It is a volatile memory.
It is made up of semiconductor materials.
It’s stored the data temporarily.

Q #135. What is ROM?
Ans: –

Its stands for Read-Only Memory.
It is an IC.
It stored the firmware.
We can only read the content of ROM but cannot write.
It is a Non-volatile memory.
It stored the data permanently.

Q #136. Different between Peer-to-Peer and Client-Server networks?
Ans: –

A limited number of workstations.A large number of workstations.
Local user created on PCs.Centralized user created on the server an administrator.
Low security.High security.
It is inexpensive.It is expensive.
Used in home, small business.Used in colleges, hospitals, corporations.
A limited number of users.Supports a large number of users.

Q #137. What is North Bridge?
Ans: –

North Bridge is called a Memory Controller Hub (MCH).
• It provides the interface between RAM and Processor.
It controls the data transfer.

Q #138. What is South Bridge?
Ans: –

South bridge is an Input and Output Controller Hub (IOH/ICH).
It provides the interface between north bridge and input-output devices.

Q #139. What is a super I/O chip?
Ans: –
Super I/O chip is a single chip that controls slower I/O devices which are not controlled by south bridge.

Q #140. What is CMOS battery? / Give a short description of CMOS?
Ans: –
CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) is a chip on the motherboard that contains BIOS configuration, date, time and other information that the computer needs during startup.
Voltage – 3.5 v
Validity – 5 years
Made up – Lithium
Battery No. – CR2032
Change when voltage is less than 2.5v
• Famous company – Maxell

Q #141. What is Motherboard?
Ans: –
A motherboard is a PCB (Printed Circuit Board). It is the main part of a computer where all components are connected with it directly or indirectly.
Manufacturer company – ASUS, Gigabyte, Intel.

Q #142. What is a hard disk?
Ans: –

Hard disk is a secondary storage media.
It stored the data permanently.
It’s made up of Magnetic media.
Hard disk manufacturer company – Toshiba, Western Digital, Seagate.

Q #143. What is Post?
Ans: –

Its stands for Power on Self-Test.
It is a self-diagnostic program.
As soon as we switch on the computer POST checks all hardware components whether working properly or not.
If all hardware is working properly then POST is successful and the computer will boot.
If one of the hardware is not working properly then POST is unsuccessful and the computer will not boot.

Q #144. What is UEFI?
Ans: –
Its stands for Unified Extendable Firmware Interface. It is the advanced interface standard firmware for computers. It is used to initialize the hardware components and start the operating system stored on the hard disk drive when the computer starts up.

Q #145. What is different between UEFI & Legacy Boot?
Ans: –

UEFILegacy Boot
It is used GUID partition table (GPT).It is used MBR (Master Boot Record) table.
It is more user-friendly.It is less user-friendly.
It has additional security features and is more efficient.Not as efficient as UEFI.
UEFI boot is the boot process used by UEFI firmware.Legacy Boot is the boot process used by BIOS firmware.

Q #146. What is a Path? What is the type of Path?
Ans: –
To locate any resource is called a Path.
It is 3 types –
Local Path: – It is used to locate any resource within the computer.
Ex- C:\Windows\Boot\Resources
UNC (Universal Naming Convention) Path: – It is to locate any resource within the LAN.
Ex- \servername\path
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Path: – It is used to locate any resource in WAN.

Q #147. What is the difference between Communication and Transmission?
Ans: –
A process of sending and receiving data between source and destination, in only one way. It is regarded as the physical movement of data called as Transmission.
A process of sending and receiving data between source and destination in both ways is called as Communication.

Q #148. Types of RAM and their Voltage, FSB, Pin, Data rate comparison table?
Ans: –

RAMVoltage (V)FSB/ Bus Clock Rate
SDRAM3.3100 – 166168
RDRAM3.3400 – 800184
DDR2.5133 – 200184
DDR – 21.8266 – 400240
DDR – 31.5533 – 800240
DDR – 41.21066 – 1600288

Q #149. What is MAC?
Ans: –
MAC (Media Access Control) is a sublayer of the Data link layer and it provides an interface to the Physical layer of the ISO/OSI model. It is responsible for the framing of data and media access control.

Q #150. What is LLC?
Ans: –
LLC (Link Logical Control) is the sublayer of the Data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. It is responsible for handling multiple layer-3 protocols and provides link services like flow control and reliability.

Q #151. What is different between SATA & PATA?
Ans: –

Full from is Serial Advance Technology Attachment.Full from is Parallel Advance Technology Attachment.
Speed is 150 Mbps for SATA-1, 300 Mbps for SATA-2 & 600 Mbps for SATA-3.Speed is 100/133 Mbps.
The number of pins of the data cable is 7.The number of pins of the data cable is 40.
The number of pins of the power cable is 15.The number of pins of the power cable is 4.

Q #152. Write some error code and their meaning?
Ans: –

400 Bad Request Error: –
A 400 Bad Request error can show up in a web browser if you do type an incorrect URL or try to access a web page that is not open to the general public.

401 Unauthorized Error: –
A 401 Unauthorized error is an HTTP status code that means the page you were trying to access cannot be loaded until you first log in with a valid user ID and password. If you have just logged in and received the 401 Unauthorized error, it means that the credentials you entered were invalid for some reason.

403 Forbidden Error: –
A 403 Forbidden error message can be seen if you try to access a web page that needs a username and password. Otherwise, you do not have permission to open this.

404 Not Found: –
The 404 Not Found error is seen when the web page you requested cannot be found by the web server that it few of reasons:
o The page has been moved without a forwarding address.
o The page has been deleted from the server.
o An incorrect URL has been typing into the browser address bar.
o The page is temporarily unavailable due to high web traffic.

Network Connection Refused: –
The network connection refused error when a website is experiencing lots of unexpected traffic, is under maintenance or is only accessible by registered users.

Unable to Locate Host: –
The error message Unable to Locate Host can show up because the website is unable to connect with its host server; perhaps because of maintenance or bandwidth issues or the network connection has been lost or the URL is incorrect.

Host Unavailable: –
The error message Host Unavailable can show up when a site is unable to connect with its server or this could be because it’s experiencing unexpectedly heavy traffic or undergoing maintenance, or because it’s been taken down.

503 Service Unavailable: –
The 503 Service Unavailable error is because of the connection to the internet has been lost or the site has been deleted or moved or the site is experiencing too much traffic and is temporarily down.

Q #153. What is Bandwidth?
Ans: –
Bandwidth is the maximum transfer rate of data from a network device. It is measured by bits per second.

Q #154. What is Frequency?
Ans: –
Frequency refers to the number of cycles in a particular unit of time.

Q #155. What is Throughput?
Ans: –
Throughput refers to how much data can be transferred from one location to another in a given amount of time.

Q #156. What is the difference between Bandwidth, Throughput & Speed?
Ans: –
Bandwidth often refers to the maximum amount of data transfer per second.
Throughput is an actual amount of data passing through media or a connection.
Speed often refers to how much data can be downloaded or uploaded per second.

Q #157. What is NIC?
Ans: –
NIC stands for Network Interface Card. It is also known as Network Adapter or Ethernet Card. It is in the form of an add-in card and is installed on a computer so that the computer can be connected to a network.
Each NIC has a MAC address which helps in identifying the computer on a network.

Q #158. What is the difference between Baseband and Broadband transmission?
Ans: –
Baseband Transmission is a single signal that consumes the whole bandwidth of the cable but
Broadband Transmission is multiple signals of multiple frequencies are sent at the same time.

Q #159. What is the difference between FAT 32 & NTFS?
Ans: –

It stands for File Allocation Table.It stands for New Technology File System.
There is an older type of file system that is not commonly used these days.There is newly type of file system that is widely used.
Its maximum file size is 4GB.Its maximum file size is 16TB.
FAT32 does not provide encryption and much security.NTFS is enabled with security and encryption.
It is supported in Windows 95/98/XP etc.It is supported in Windows Vista/NT/7 etc.

Q #160. What is the difference between MBps or Mbps?
Ans: –
MBps stands for Megabytes per second and Mbps stands for Megabits per second.
1 byte is equal to 8 bits (1B = 8b)
So, 1 MBps = 8 Mbps
The two terms are similar, but MBps is used to specify how much of a file is downloaded/uploaded per second, but Mbps is used to specify Internet connection speeds.
Example: –
You subscribe to a plan speed up to 16 Mbps, a total of 20 GB data just 999/-. So, your maximum download speed will be (16/8=2) 2 MB/s or 2 MBps.
If you want to download a video and the file size is 10MB. Your Internet connection gives you download speeds up to 16 Mbps. So, (16/8=2) and file size 10 MB, (10/2= 5). It will take approximately 5 seconds to download your 10 MB file with an Internet connection of 16 Mbps.

Hardware And Networking Interview Questions & Answers PDF

Also Read: –
Network Devices Hub Repeater Bridge Switch Router Gateways
Computer network transmission mode
Network Topology
Describe OSI model
Describe TCP IP model
Describe straight-through and a cross-over cable
What is Transmission Media & Types of Transmission Media
Types of Computer Network
What is Operating System
What is BIOS
Processor (CPU) in Computer
What is Hard Disk
RAM (Random Access Memory) definition
CMOS Definition
Basic Parts of a Computer
Motherboard Definition Types Components Ports
Components of switched-mode power supply
Components of computer system
Computer Input-Output Devices
Different between Intel i-series processor Generation
Microsoft Windows History
Cisco Router ports Function

Conclusion: –
All the students, this question & answer read carefully. These are short interview-type questions. I hope, all of you are attended your first-time networking interview and crack it.

-Thank You—

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