Here describe some basic computer Hardware and Networking related interview questions & answer which help you in networking interviews.
Q #1. What is SMPS?
Ans: – A Switch-mode Power Supply is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently.
Q #2. What is GPU?
Ans: – A Graphics Processing Unit is a computer chip that performs rapid mathematical calculation, primarily for the purpose of the rendering images.
Q #3. What is Bad sector?
Ans: – A bed sector is a sector on a computer’s hard disk drive or flash memory that is either inaccessible or unwritable due to permanent damage.
Q #4. What is ‘chkdsk’?
Ans: – Chkdsk (short for “check disk”) is a system tool in DOS and windows operating system. It verifies the file system of a volume and fixes logical file system errors.
Q #5. What is RAID? Explain different level of RAID technology?
Ans: – RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks. This is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk components into a single logical unit. It is designed for the purposes of data redundancy & performance improvement. The system consists of two or more drives working in parallel. There is a trend to use the technology for solid state rive.
There are different RAID levels. Each level is optimized for a specific situation.
- Raid 0 – striping.
- Raid 1 – mirroring.
- Raid 5 – striping with parity.
- Raid 6 – striping with double parity.
- Raid 10 – combining mirroring and striping.
Q #6. What is System software?
Ans: – System software is a type of computer program that is designed to run a computer’s hardware and application programs.
Q #7. What is Application software?
Ans: – Application software is a program or group of programs designed for end users.
Q #8. What is computer hardware?
Ans: – Computer hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as a monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, hard disk drive (HDD), graphic card, sound card, memory (RAM) and motherboard.
Q #9. What is Software?
Ans: – Software refers to a program or set of instructions and applications used to manage and control various functions of a device such as a computer.
Q #10. What is Unix?
Ans: – Unix is a multiuser, multitasking operating system that is widely used as the master control program in workstations and servers.
Q #11. What is Operating System?
Ans: – An Operating System (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common service for computer programs.
Q #12. What is SOC?
Ans: – A system on a chip or system on chip (Soc or SOC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip.
Q #13. What is WDDM?
Ans: – Windows Display Driver Model (WDDM) is the graphic driver architecture for video card drivers running Microsoft Windows versions beginning with Windows vista.
Q #14. What is ISP?
Ans: – An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the internet.
Q #15. What is Firmware?
Ans: – Firmware is programming that is written to the read-only memory (ROM) of a computing device.
Q #16. What is Dual Boot?
Ans: – A dual boot system is a computer system in which two operating system are installed on the same hard drive.
Q #17. What is Partition?
Ans: – A Partition is nothing more than a way to organize the physical space on a hard drive. We typically think of a hard drive as a single disk, but partitioning allows you to split a hard drive into appearing as multiple, different drives.
Q #18. What is Trial Software?
Ans: – In the software industry, trial software refers to software which consumers can try before they buy. Trial versions of software usually contain all the functionality of the regular version, but can only be used for a limited time.
Q #19. How will you recover data from a virus-infected system?
Ans: – We will install an OS and updated antivirus in a system that is free of any viruses, and then connect the hard drive of the infected system as a secondary drive. The hard drive will then be scanned and cleaned. Data can now be copied into the system.
Q #20. Some top-level domain name and they’re full from?
- COM – “.com” stands for “commercial”.
- IN – “.IN” stands for India.
- NET – “.net” stands for “network”
- ORG – “.org” stands for “organization”
- INFO – “.info” stands for “information”
- BIZ – “.biz” stands for “business”.
Q #21. What is USB Flash Drive?
Ans: – A USB (Universal Serial Bus) flash drive is a lightweight, removable flash storage device that connects to a computer’s USB port.
Q #22. What is Boot Disk?
Ans: – A boot disk is a removable digital data storage medium from which a computer can load and run (boot) an operating system or utility program.
Q #23. What is BIOS?
Ans: – BIOS (Basic Input/ Output System) is the program a personal computer’s microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on.
Q #24. What is a DVD?
Ans: – DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) is a type of compact disc able to store large amounts of data, especially high-resolution audio-visual material.
Q #25. What is OS?
Ans: – The Operating System (OS) is the most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs and applications.
Q #26. What is an ISO image?
Ans: – An ISO image is an archive file of an optical disc, a type of disk image composed of the data contents from every written sector on an optical disc.
Q #27. What is Software License?
Ans: – A Software license is a legal instruction (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software.
Q #28. What is Posix?
Ans: – A set of formal descriptions that provide a standard for the design of an operating systems, especially ones that are compatible with Unix.
Q #29. What is Dual Boot?
Ans: – A dual boot system is a computer system in which two operating system are installed on the same hard drive, allowing either operating system to be located and given control.
Q #30. What is Browser?
Ans: – A computer program with a graphical user interface for displaying HTML files, used to navigate the World Wide Web.
Q #31. What is Legacy Hardware?
Ans: – In computers, legacy hardware is outdated computer system hardware.
Q #32. What is Third-party software?
Ans: – Third-party software is either freely distributed or sold by companies other than the company that developed the computer’s operating system.
Q #33. What are the types of third-party software?
Ans: – Third-party software are three types.
- This software is available at no cost.
- It may not be modified or distributed without the permission of the person who wrote the software.
- This software is provided free to users for a defined period of time.
- Users are allowed to make and share copies of this software.
- The author can request a small fee for using the software after the free time period.
- Shareware is offered as a download from a website or can be accessed using a CD or DVD included with a magazine.
- Open-source software (OSS) is an application in which the source code and documentation are available to users for use or modification.
- Multiple programmers can work together on customizing the source code to add or modify existing features or designs.
Q #34. What is the Internet?
Ans: – The internet is an informal term for the worldwide communication network of computers. The internet is used to send information quickly between computers.
Q #35. What is website?
Ans: – The collection of web pages, images, scripts, videos and multimedia files, hosted on one or multiple servers visible on the internet is called a website (website).
Q #36. What is software?
Ans: – Software refers to a program or a set of instructions and applications used to manage and control various functions of a device such as a computer.
Q #37. What is the Product key?
Ans: – A product Key, also known as a software key, is a specific software-based key for a computer program. It certifies that the copy of the program is original.
Q #38. What is Server?
Ans: – A computer or device on a network that manages resources.
Q #39. What is Processor?
Ans: – A processor, or microprocessor is a small chip that resides in computers and other electronic devices. Its basic job is to receive input, process it and provide the appropriate output.
Q #40. What is SSD?
Ans: – Solid State Drives (SSD) have no moving parts or rotating platers, SSDs are used extensively on laptops and mobile devices. External SSDs are also a practical option for data backups.
- They are faster and more reliable than magnetic hard drives. They are easily portable.
- SSDs are available in sizes up to 16 TB, but less costly, 64 to 256 GB models are more common.
Q #41. What is NAS (Network Attached Storage)?
Ans: – This is an option for local backups especially for networks and small businesses. NAS can hold very large amount of data.
They are available from 1 TB to 100 TB that are in backing up of PCs, laptop collecting digital videos and large offices to store locally.
Q #42. What is Server?
Ans: – A server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called “clients”.
Q #43. What is Protocols?
Ans: – A protocol is a set of rules and guidelines for communicating data. Rules are defined for each step and process during communication between two or more computers.
Q #44. What is Network?
Ans: – Internetworking devices communicate with each other by using a guided media or unguided media is known as a network.
Q #45. What is Task Manager?
Ans: – A task manager is a system monitor program used to provide information about the processes and programs running on a computer, as well as the general status of the computer.
Q #46. What is Ethernet?
Ans: – Ethernet is a physical and data link layer (OSI model) technology for local area networks (LANs).
Q #47. What is Ping?
Ans: – Ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on an internet protocol (IP) network.
Q #48. What is Trecert?
Ans: – Traceroute is a computer network diagnostic tool for displaying the route (path) and measuring transit delays of packets across an internet protocol (IP) network.
Q #49. What is Hop?
Ans: – In computer networking, a hop is one portion of the path between source and destination.
Q #50. What is Virus?
Ans: – A computer virus is a program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes.
Q #51. What is External hard drives?
Ans: – An external hard drive is a portable storage device that can be attached to a computer through a USB or Firewire connection or wirelessly.
Q #52. What is Magnetic hard drives?
Ans: – A magnetic disk is a storage device that uses a magnetization process to wire, rewrite and access data.
Q #53. What is Virtual machines?
Ans: – A virtual machine is a software computer that, like a physical computer, runs an operating system and applications.
Q #54. What is mean by 10Base2?
Ans: – 10Base2 is known as cheapernet, thin Ethernet, thinnet and thinwire which is a variant of Ethernet that uses thin coaxial cable, terminated with BNC connectors. Maximum length is 185 metres.
Q #55. What is mean by 10Base5?
Ans: – 10Base5 is known as thick Ethernet or thicknet, that was the first commercially available variant of Ethernet, which uses a thick and stiff coaxial cable up to 500 meters in length.
Q #56. What is Administrator?
Ans: – A network administrator maintains computer infrastructures with emphasis on networking.
Q #57. What is a workstation?
Ans: – A workstation is a special designed for technical or scientific application.
Q #58. What is cloud computing?
Ans: – Cloud computing is a type of computing that storing and accessing data and programs over the internet instead of your computer’s hard drive.
In its most simple description, cloud computing is taking services and moving them outside an organization’s firewall. Applications, storage and other services are accessed via the Web.
Q #59. What is Operating System and what are types of OS?
Ans: – OS is the common system software program that run on a computer. An OS acts as an interface between the user and the PC.
Q #60. What is the difference between Operating systems and Application Software?
Ans: – An Operating System (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software and provides common services for Application Software. Application Software usually requires an Operating System to function.
Q #61. What is the forward DNS lookup and reverse DNS lookup?
Ans: – Forward DNS lookup is used to convert the human meaningful name (Internet Domain Name) which is easy-to-understand format to computer meaningful name (IP address) however, Reverse DNS lookup is using reverse way to convert IP address to Internet Domain Name.
Q #62. How to secure your wireless network?
Ans – The following practices can secure your wireless network –
- Enable network encryption.
- Use Enterprise WPA2 authentication.
- Use unique password for wireless users.
- Use good firewall.
- Use VPN.
- Change SSID.
Q #63. What is WPA?
Ans: – WPA stands for Wi-Fi Protected Access. It is Wi-Fi standard that is used for improve the security features of WEP. It was developed by Wi-Fi Alliance to provide better security and more data encryption than Wired Equipment Privacy (WEP). There are 3 version of WEP – WEP, WEP-1, WEP-2.
Q #64. What is WEP?
Ans: – WEP stands for Wired Equipment Privacy. It is a standard IEEE 802.11 and was developed by Wi-Fi Alliance. It is a security protocol for Wi-Fi networks for using wireless networks which encodes transmitted data.
Q #65. What is Wi-Fi?
Ans: – Its stands for Wireless Fidelity. It is based on the IEEE 802.11 standard network. It is a wireless technology that uses a radio signals to transmit data to connected devices like computers, tablets, smartphones and other devices to the internet.
Q #66. How to remotely troubleshoot pc?
Ans: – We can troubleshoot pc remotely by using in built remote desktop connection or third-party software like any desk, ammy admin, TeamViewer, showmypc etc.
Q #67. What is disk management?
Ans: – Disk Management is an extension of the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and it is a system utility in Windows that enables you to perform advanced storage tasks.
Basically, it is used to manage the drives installed in a computer – like example hard drives (internal and external), optical disk drives and flash drives. It can be used to partition drives, format drives, assign drive letters and much more.
Q #68. What is the difference between 32-bit OS and 64-bit OS?
Ans: – The terms 32-bit and 64-bit refer to the way a computer’s processor, handles information. The 64-bit version of Windows handles large amount of RAM more effectively than 32-bit system. Using 64-bit one can do a lot in multitasking, user can easily switch between various applications without any windows hanging problem.
Q #69. What is migration?
Ans: – PC Migration is the process of transferring the entire user environment (e.g. personal documents and settings) between two computers
Q #70. What is RPM? What is different RPM in HDD?
Ans: – RPM stands for Revolution Per Minute and it defines how many times the platter of the drive completes 3600 turnin one minute. Faster RPM means better read write performance of the drive. Different RPM of the hard drives are 5400, 5900, 7200 and 10000.
Q #71. What is Pixel?
Ans: –Pixel stands for Picture Element. It is the smallest unit of a digital image or video. The more number of pixels means the more clarity.
Q #72. What is Disk Clean up?
Ans: – Disk Cleanup is a Microsoft software utility and it is used to free up disk space on a computer hard drive. It allows user to remove files that are not use and it helps to speed up the hardware performance.
Q #73. What is Disk Defragment?
Ans: – Disk Defragment is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations.
Q #74. What do you mean by Hotspot?
Ans: – A Hotspot is a physical location where people access the internet using Wi-Fi technology connecting wirelessly. Using Hotspot, you can connect some devices like computers, smartphones or other devices at your home network.
Q #75. What is the difference between Wi-Fi and Hotspot?
Ans: – Wi-Fi is a wireless communication technology that is used for LAN (Local Area Network). But other hand the hotspot is a physical location to provides internet to wireless devices by using wi-Fi.
Q #76. What is VNC?
Ans: – VNC stands for Virtual Network Computing and it works on a client/ server model. A VNC client is installed on the local computer and connects to the server component, which must be installed on the remote computer. The server transmits a duplicate of the remote computers display screen to the viewer. Example – Team Viewer, Show My PC, Ammy Admin etc.
Q #77. What is Network Administrator?
Ans: – A Network Administrator maintains computer infrastructure with importance on networking.
Q #78. What is Workstations?
Ans: – A Workstation is a special computer that is designed for technical and scientific applications.
Q #79. What is Internet, Intranet and Extranet?
- Intranet: – It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, business and government networks.
- Intranet: – A privately maintained computer network that can be accessed only by authorized persons, especially member or employees of the organization that owns it.
- Extranet: – An Extranet is controlled private network allowing customers, partners, vendors, other business to gain information.
Q #80. What is Co-axial cable?
Ans: – A Co-axial cable is a cable, which is used in the transmission of audio, video and communication.
Q #81. What is different between Wired LAN and Wireless LAN?
|Wired LAN||Wireless LAN|
|IEEE standard is 802.3.||IEEE standard is 802.11.|
|Devices are physically connected.||Devices are logically connected.|
|Signal loss is less.||Signal less is high.|
|Faster data transmission rate.||Slower data transmission rate.|
|More Secure.||Less Secure.|
|Covers Large distance.||Covers Short distance.|
Q #82. What is Transmission Media?
Ans: – Transmission Media is a communication channel that carries the information the sender to the receiver.
Q #83. What is Twisted-Pair cable?
Ans: – Twisted-Pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two wire are twisted each other to prevent the data loss.
Q #84. What is UTP?
Ans: – UTP means Unshielded Twisted-Pair cable, which is copper media and wires are twisted together to reduce noise and crosstalk.
Q #85. What is STP?
Ans: – STP means Shielded Twisted-Pair cable, which is the copper media and this cable is shielded or mesh surrounding the wire that guards the cable against electromagnetic interference.
Q #86. What is Fiber Optic cable?
Ans: – Fiber Optic consists of glass or plastic fiber that carry data in the form of light signals.
Q #87. What is Radio Waves, Micro Waves, Infrared?
Radio Waves: – Radio Waves are the electromagnetic waves that are transmitted in all free space. The frequency range of Radio Waves is 300 MHz to below.
Example – F.M. Radio, Cordless Phone.
Micro Waves: – Micro Waves are the electromagnetic waves. Its frequency range is 300 MHz to 300 GHz.
Example – Mobile phone communication and television distribution.
Infrared Waves: – Infrared Waves are used for very short distance communication, as they cannot go through obstacles. Its frequency range is 300 GHz to 400 THz.
Example – T.V. remotes, Wireless mouse & keyboard, printer etc.
Q #88. Why is Wired media called as Guided media?
Ans: – Because wired media we can guide the data signals using wires from one location to another, so that’s why it can also be called Guided media.
Q #89. What do you mean wireless communication?
Ans: – Unguided media transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical medium. This type of communication is referred to as Wireless communication.
Q #90. What is the difference between Transmission and Communication?
Ans: – A process of sending and receiving data between source and destination, in only one way. It is the physical movement of data, called as Transmission.
A process of sending and receiving data between source and destination in both ways is called as Communication.
Q #91. What is different between UTP and STP?
Ans: – UTP is a cable with wires that are twisted together to reduce noise and crosstalk.
STP is a twisted pair cable that confined in foil or mesh shielded that guards the cable against electromagnetic interference.
Q #92. What is EMI/ RFI?
Ans: – EMI stands for Electromagnetic Interference it is also called as RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). EMI is frequency of electrical noise and RFI is a subset of electrical noise on the EMI spectrum.
Q #93. What do you mean by Ethernet?
Ans: – Ethernet is the communication standard that is widely used in wired technology example – LAN, where it helps to connect multiple devices are share their information etc.
Q #94. What do you mean by Simplex mode?
Ans: – Simplex is a Unidirectional communication, the data transmits in one direction only from one device to another device.
The sender device that sends data can only but cannot receive the data. Other hand the receiver device that receive only the data but cannot send the data.
Example – T.V., Keyboard.
Q #95. What do you mean by Half-duplex mode?
Ans: – Half-duplex mode is a Bio-directional transmission but one way at a time. When the sender is sending the data receiver can only receive, they cannot send at the same time and vice versa.
Example – Walkie-talkie.
Q #96. What do you mean by Full-duplex mode?
Ans: – Full-duplex is a Bio-directional communication. Both device sending and receiving data at the same time.
Example – Telephone network.
Q #97. What is Cladding?
Ans: – The Optic Fiber Cable consists as a thick plastic layer of glass known as Cladding. It is providing the light reflective at the core part.
Q #98. What do you mean by WLAN?
Ans: – It’s stand for Wireless Local Area Network. It is help you to connect two or more devices using wireless communication within a limited area such as home, school, office etc. Today WLAN system are based on IEEE 802.11 standards.
Q #99. What is the difference between Ad-hoc and Infrastructure wireless networks?
Ans: – In Ad-hoc network devices are connected in wireless network using their LAN cards and access point, but wireless router is not required in Ad-hoc network.
Other hand, in Infrastructure network devices are connected in network through wireless access point or wireless router.
Q #100. What is Bit-locker?
Ans: – Bit-locker is the full disk encryption featured included with selected editions of windows vista and lower versions. It is designed to protect data by providing encryption for entire volume.
Top 100 Hardware & Networking Interview Questions & Answers Part-2 PDF
All the students, this question & answer read carefully. These is short interview-type questions. I hope, all of you are attended your first-time networking interview and crack it.